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Yangon & Environment



Established : around 2,500 years ago
Location Latitude : 16° 47' N, Longitude: 96° 08' E
Temperature : Min 16 'C - Max 34 'C
Population : 7 million

Yangon is the commercial capital and also the main gateway to Myanmar. Evergreen and cool with lush tropical trees, shady parks and beautiful lakes, Yangon has earned the name of "The Garden City of the East". Yangon was founded by King Alaungpaya on the site of a small settlement called Dagon when he conquered Lower Myanmar in 1755.

Yangon was the capital city of Myanmar until 2005 when the government abruptly moved the capital to Naypyidaw. With its wide streets, parks and lakes Yangon has the sleepy charm of a provincial town. Crumbling British colonial mansions stand beside glittering pagodas, including one of the most remarkable religious shrines in all of Asia - the magical Shwedagon Pagoda. Much of Yangon's allure stems from its colourful street life: peddlers hawk stones on the sidewalk in the gem market; ricksaw drivers in striped longyis (sarongs) peddle lazily through the tree-lined streets; and people drink endless cups of sweet, milky tea at roadside tea stalls.



Shwedagon Pagoda is a must, one of the most famous and interesting place to visit historical in Yangon display events of Myanmar.

The Shwedagon Pagoda, officially titled Shwedagon Zedi Daw, also known as the Golden Pagoda, is a 98-metre (approx. 321.5 feet) gilded stupa located in Yangon, Burma. The pagoda lies to the west of Kandawgyi Lake, on Singuttara Hill, thus dominating the skyline of the city. It is the most sacred Buddhist pagoda for the Burmese with relics of the past four Buddhas enshrined within, namely the staff of Kakusandha, the water filter of Konagamana, a piece of the robe of Kassapa and eight hairs of Gautama, the historical Buddha.

According to legend, the Shwedagon Pagoda is 2500 years old. Archaeologists believe the stupa was actually built sometime between the 6th and 10th centuries by the Mon, but this is a very controversial issue because according to the records by Buddhist monks it was built before Lord Buddha died in 486 BC.



The Sule Pagoda is a Burmese stupa located in the heart of downtown Yangon, occupying the centre of the city and an important space in contemporary Burmese politics, ideology and geography. According to legend, it was built before the Shwedagon pagoda during the time of the Buddha, making it more than 2,500 years old. Burmese legend states that the site for the Shwedagon pagoda was asked to be revealed from an old nat who resided at the place where the Sule Pagoda now stands. The Sule Pagoda has been the focal point of both Yangon and Burmese politics. It has served as a rallying point in both the 1988 uprisings and 2007 Saffron Revolution.



The Botataung Pagoda also spelled Botahtaung; literally "1000 military officers") is a famous pagoda located in downtown Yangon, Myanmar, near the Yangon river. The pagoda was first built by the Mon around the same time as was Shwedagon Pagoda—according to local belief, over 2500 years ago, and was known as Kyaik-de-att in Mon language. The pagoda is hollow within, and houses what is believed to be a sacred hair of Gautama Buddha. The Botataung Pagoda was completely destroyed during World War II, and was rebuilt after the war.



Chauk Htat Gyi Pagoda is just a short distance northeast of Shwedagon, houses a striking reclining Buddha image that measures an impressive 65 metres long and 16 metres high. Sometimes referred to by foreign visitors as the 'Sweet-Eyed Buddha, the statue's porcelain face is punctuated by expressive large eyes (made from special imported Japanese glass), vermillion lips and bright blue eye shadow. Even the nails are painted red. Resting on his right, the Buddha's staggered feet (indicating the living state just before his death, as opposing to parallel feet, denoting his passing away) are decorated with 108 sacred Buddhist symbols.



Kabar Aye Pagoda is located on Kabar Aye Road. Mayangone Township. Yangon. Myanmar. The name “Kaba Aye” in Myanmar means “World Peace” to which this pagoda is dedicated. Different from the other pagodas. Kabar Aye Pagoda was only built during 1952. This pagoda is significant for the Sixth World Buddhist Synod which was held in its large precinct in 1954. Myanmar people are Theravada Buddhist and are very deeply devoted to the religion. For the Sixth Buddhist Council. which was held during 1954-56. the Kabar Aye Pagoda was built in dedication to the council. The pagoda was built in 1954. The Kabar Aye Pagoda compound is a large one intended to have peace and quiet environment for the monks (Sangas) and the devotees.



Koe Htat Gyi Pagoda meaning the Nine Storey Buddha Image, is situated on the Bargayar Road, Sanchaung Township, Yangon. A huge Buddha Image is in a sitting position. Koe Htat Gyi is also known as Atula Dipatti Maha Muni Thetkya.

The giant sitting Buddha image was built in August 1905. The height of the image is 72 feet from foot to the head. The compound of the pagoda is 14 acres. The hall was in the iron structure with CGI sheet roof. The pavilion has a nine-tiered roof and hence it is generally referred to as the nine-storey pagoda. There is a frog and a snake on each side of the entrance to the prayer hall. There was a legend saying the giant frog ate the snake showing victory. As a symbol, theses two statues are kept. There are small shops selling Buddha images made of wood and bronze. There are also some palmist and astrologer.



The Kyaikkalo Pagoda has been an object of veneration throughout Myanmar history. Successive Mon and Bamar kings repaired and renovated it. In the year 747 of the Myanmar Era (A.D. 1385) the Mon king Banyanwe (A.D. 1385 - 1423) better known as Yazadarit (Rajadhiraja) restored and embellished it. The octagonal shape of the plinth indicates that the pagoda has the Mon architectural design and was originally built entirely of massive blocks of literate stone. It is a pagoda with a solid stupa. Each side of the octagonal plinth measures 35 cubits in length and 5 cubits in height. The main pagoda stands on the uppermost terrace and it is surrounded by 25 minor stupas. The northern. western and southern sides have stairs leading up to the uppermost terrace. As there are deep precipices on the western and northern sides. massive retaining walls fortify the precinct.



The Kyauktawgyi Pagoda was built by King Mindon in 1853 on the model of the Ananda Temple at Bagan. It closely resembles the Ananda in exterior form but it falls short of the latter in construction and interior decoration. The pagoda was completed during 1878. The chief feature of the Kyauktawgyi Paya is huge seated Buddha figure sculpted from a single block of pale green marble from the Sagyin quarry twelve miles north of Mandalay. It was said that about 10 thousand men took about 2 weeks to transport the stone block from the Ayeyarwaddy River to the site where it is today.



In 1959, during the clearing of land near the Ngamoeyeik tidal stream as part of the programme in setting up the new township of North Okkalapa, the stump of a ruined pagoda overgrown by a hardwood tree was revealed. Eventually a donor materialized who built a new pagoda at this site. As the ruins were being cleared before the construction of the new pagoda, a casket bearing a figurine of a woman was recovered from the reliquary of the ruined pagoda. The figurine was said to resemble the Mae Lamu statue on the Shwedagon Pagoda exactly and in the light of the legendary association of a crocodile named Ngamoeyeik involved in the legend of King Okkalapa with the location of the ruined pagoda by the Ngamoeyeik stream, the shrine came to be known as Mae Lamu Pagoda. A stylized fruit of the mangrove is also featured in the construction of the pagoda. There is also an image of the reclining Buddha and clustered around these Main edifices are compositions in stucco of various episodes in the life of the Buddha.



The Maha Wizaya Pagoda was built on the Dhammarakkhita (Guardian of the Law) Hill which faces the famous Shwedagon Pagoda, in 1980 to commemorate the first successful convening of all sects of the Buddhist monastic order, under one supervisory body. It was built from funds donated by the people across the whole country. An image of the Buddha which was a royal gift from the King and Queen of Nepal is enshrined within the pagoda. All manner of traditional decorative art executed by modern artists and artisans grace this shrine and testify to the preservation of a national culture developed through the ages.



It was built by Min Ye Nandameit. the King of Innwa. in 1020. The King built this monument ten years after ascension to the throne. as son of King Thalun. the donor of Kaung-Hmu-Daw Pagoda. Originally it was in the bamboo glade and so it was known as Weluwun Pagoda.

It was later called Nga-dat-gyi for its five roof tiers. five stages of places. five places of consecration. five places of offering and five pairs of places. It is 28 cubits high. On the way down one can observe the second biggest set of beads in Myanmar.



A museum is a repository where the heritage of ancient civilizations are put on exhibit for the benefit of people living in the present. It is an archive of man's past achievements.

The National Museum thus is a treasure chest of priceless stone inscriptions, documents, carvings, paintings and a host of other artifacts that testify to the ancient culture and civilization of the Myanmar people. Anyone who has made a tour of the museum will come away with greater knowledge and understanding of Myanmar and its people.

The National Museum of Myanmar was founded in 1952 with its premises at what was once the Jubilee Hall. In 1970 the museum was moved to a more spacious building on Pansodan Street. But these premises were not originally constructed to house a museum.

The present National Museum is located on Pyay Road in a splendid five-storey building constructed for the purpose in spacious and specially landscaped grounds. Priceless ancient artifacts, works of art and historic memorabilia are on display in 14 halls on four stories. Three halls on the ground floor hold exhibits on the evolution the Myanmar script and alphabet, the Lion Throne Room and Ratanapon Period pieces.

On the first floor of the museum are four halls, one with an impressive display of the royal regalia, a second hall with exhibits of historic significance; the third hall with exhibits of pre-historic times and the fourth containing exhibits on natural history. In the hall of the royal regalia one can see beautifully ornamented objects that played a significant role in important royal ceremonies of ancient kings throughout Myanmar history. An example of the high standard of craftsmanship is the royal betel box in the shape of a Brahminy (Hamsa) bird. It is a beautifully gilded box embedded with valuable gems.

In the exhibit hall on natural history are many fossils dating back millions of years. In this hall is an exhibit that is a truly rare find. It is fossil of an anthropoid primate that has been dated as being approximately 40 million years old. It was found in the Pondaung region of Upper Myanmar.

The second floor of the museum is where exhibits on Myanmar culture can be seen with one hall assigned to Myanmar music, song and dance.

On the third floor of the museum are 3 exhibition halls, two for Myanmar paintings and a third for ancient ornaments and jewellery.

On the fourth floor are halls for the Buddha Images and for the display of the culture of the ethnic races of Myanmar.



Bogyoke Aung San Market and also Scott's Market is a major bazaar located in Pabedan township in central Yangon, Myanmar. Known for its colonial architecture and inner cobblestone streets, the market is a major tourist destination, dominated by antique, Burmese handicraft and jewellery shops, art galleries, and clothing stores. Bogyoke Market is a popular black market location to exchange currency. The market also has a number of stores for local shoppers, selling medicine, foodstuffs, garments and foreign goods.


Bogyoke Aung San Museum is located on No 15. Bogyoke Museum Lane. Bahan Township. Yangon. The Bogyoke Aung San Museum was established in 1962. 15 years after the assassination of Bogyoke. Bogyoke in Myanmar is a term used for General. The museum was the home of the General before he was assassinated. Bogyoke Aung San lived in peace and harmony with his family. His wife was Daw Khin Kyi and he had three children. The building is a 2 storey-building where Bogyoke Aung San stayed until he was assassinated. displayed as he was alive for memorial. furniture. dresses. books. the car used by Bogyoke Aung San. and his family photos.


Kandawgyi Garden or Kandawgyi Nature Park is a popular recreation centre of the capital of Yangon. The area of the Garden is 110 acres, water areas is 150 acres, which makes it a total of 260 acres. You can find a variety of beautiful flowers, the natural scene of the lake water and large shady trees. There are also an orchid garden, the children play-ground, Mini Zoo, the souvenir shops and many restaurants. The playgrounds and picnic areas are favourite spots for children and teenagers. The beauty of Karaweik Hall also shows a unique work of art to be explored in the heart of Kandawgyi Lake. Kandawgyi meaning "the great lake" in Myanmar is a well-known place in Yangon.


Overall, the exhibit features an incredible array of gems and minerals from all over the globe as well as an extensive collection of California specimens. The objects in the gallery are so beautiful, you can’t help but want to touch them. Luckily visitors are encouraged to interact with multiple “touch specimens” of gems, minerals and meteorites. A slab of gem-quality jadeite, weighing several hundred pounds, is one of the most valuable specimens in the entire exhibit and must be one of the most valuable mineral specimens available for public handling in the world.

The Gem and Mineral Hall houses only a small fraction of the Museum’s extensive collection, which now includes more than 150,000 specimens.



The floating Karaweik Restaurant on Kandawgyi (Royal) Lake is one of the landmarks of Yangon. This modern architecture of a mythical creature Karaweik Hall was constructed in 1972. This whole building was gilded with gold about 20 years ago. Karaweik Hall will serve lunch and dinner with Myanmar, Chinese, Eastern and Western cuisine at moderate prices. It is also an excellent idea to examine the beauty of this royal barge and the stunning view of the Shwedagon. Traditional dance performances are normally held here in the evenings.


National Races Village is located near Thanlyin Bridge. Thaketa Township. Yangon. National races village was constructed by Ministry of Progress of Border Areas and National Races and Development Affairs is situated in Tharketa Township. on the left of Yangon-Thanlyin Bridge.


People’s Park is located near the western stairways of Shwedagon Pagoda. It is an area of a total of 135.72 acres bounded by the main thoroughfares of Pyay Road to its west, U Wisara Road to its east, Dhammazedi Road to its north and Ahlone Road to its south. It was first opened in 1990.

The Park is well known for its large concrete water fountain. A fountain, composed of two receding tiers of white elephants spewing water out of their raised trunks and is topped by a single lotus bud, forms the centerpiece of a flower-lined marble esplanade. Over a thousand trees and plants from 52 species are to be found in the Park. A little over half of the complex is the 70.3-acre People's Square. A flower- and tree-lined marble esplanade starting from Pyithu Hluttaw towards the Shwedagon Pagoda is the center piece of the square. Pyidaungsu Ayeyeik Nyein or the Union Nationalities' Haven of Peace occupies a corner of the Square. Many National Events such as ceremonies of Independence Day, Union Day, National Day are held in this place. There is a Museum housing life-size models of nationalities in their colourful dresses.

In 2011, People's Park and Square is renovated by private company and now there are amusement park including swimming pools, water slides, joy rides and water fountain garden. Families, groups, couples and individuals who want rest and relaxation are seen at the People's Park and People' s Square. The People's Square and People's Park remains open daily from 7AM to 7PM.


During the First World War, many nations saw massive devastation and loss of life. More people lost their lives in the east than in the west, but the outcome was different. In the west, and in response to the victory there obtained, most of the cities in the countries involved in the conflict erected memorials, with the memorials in smaller villages and towns often listing the names of each local soldier who had been killed in addition (so far as the decision by the French and British in 1916 to construct governmentally designed cemeteries was concerned) to their names being recorded on military headstones, often against the will of those directly involved, and without any opportunity of choice in the British Empire (Imperial War Graves Commission). Massive British monuments commemorating thousands of dead with no identified war grave, such as the Menin Gate at Ypres and the Thiepval memorial on the Somme, were also constructed. The Liberty Memorial, located in Kansas City, Missouri, is a memorial dedicated to all Americans who served in the Great War. For various reasons connected with their character, the same may be said to apply to certain governmental memorials in the United Kingdom (the Cenotaph in London, relating to the Empire in general, and the Scottish National War Memorial in Edinburgh, also with a reference to the Empire, but with particular connections to the United Kingdom, having been opened by the Prince of Wales in 1927 and with the King and the Queen the first visitors and contributors of a casket of the Scottish names for addition within the Shrine).



Yangon Zoological Gardens was established in 1901 with the public donation of 240.000 Kyats. The construction started at the present site after clearing 61 acres of virgin soil. but the first collection of wild animals initiated since 1882 in connection with the Phayre's Museum which was then situated at the present site of the Yangon General Hospital. The collected animals were moved gradually to their new enclosures.

The newly established zoological gardens. by the side of the Royal Lakes. was named Victoria Memorial Park which was formally opened on January 1906.

A Natural History Museum which was also a part of the zoo. was opened on the 1st of May. 1966. Furthermore. an amusement park was opened on the 7th of October. 1997. The Zoological Garden Amusement Park is also a well-known spot for children and teenagers.







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